From a small northwestern observatory…

Finance and economics generally focused on real estate

Archive for June 2017

Kroger…. sigh….

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I truly like Kroger.  I do the largest portion of my “commodity” shopping there.  Friends and colleagues know of my constant battle with my weight, and sadly enough, Kroger (or their pacific northwest brand, Fred Meyer) is partly to blame.

That said, I’m very concerned with Kroger (and Fred Meyer) as brands, and by extension as users of big boxes of real estate and anchors of shopping centers.  Kroger’s stock hit a one-year high of $37.86 last July, and is today 40% lower at 22.82.  Admittedly, about 7 points of that loss came on the heels of Amazon’s announced acquisition of Whole Foods.  However, another 7 or 8 points came from slow drift over the last 11 months.  For the record, during the past 12 months, the S&P 500 (not the most aggressive benchmark, for sure) rose from 2000 to 2433 (today, 1pm EDT), for a gain of just under 22%.  Hence, Kroger has underperformed the S&P by 62%.  Ahem…. To put this in more meaningful terms, Kroger has lost about $14 Billion in shareholder wealth in 11 months.

So this morning, I took time out of my nasty, busy schedule to listen to Kroger’s CEO, Rodney McMullen, interviewed on CNBC.  I was underwhelmed, to say the least.  He basically wanted to defend their current modus operandi, and bragged about their cheese department (which, I will admit, is quite good).  Arguably, when one loses $14 Billion in shareholder wealth in 11 months, perhaps one should have a “Plan B” to discuss on CNBC.

From a real estate perspective, Kroger and its other brands (e.g. — Fred Meyer) run 2,778 grocery stores in the U.S.  At about 50,000 square feet each, that’s roughly 140 million square feet of real estate (not counting 786 convenience stores, 37 food processing facilities, 1,360 supermarket fuel centers, and such and so forth).  Further, most of these stores are anchors for community shopping centers.  Lose the grocery anchor, and the entire shopping center becomes a dust bowl pretty quickly.

A long time ago, In Search of Excellence established that businesses “in the middle” of a market are doomed to failure.  You can make money at the top of the market (Whole Foods) or at the bottom (WalMart Super Centers) but not in the middle.  Profit margins in grocery have always been razor thin.  I can think of a dozen business scenarios that make sense for Amazon and Whole Foods, not the least is the fact that Whole Foods, geographically, is well positioned to serve as distribution centers for the sort of “top of the market” customers who would order groceries from Amazon.  I would love to see where Kroger thinks its market lies, but I’m going to guess that everyone in the grocery biz who is not chasing the top of the market will be in a race for the bottom of the market.

Written by johnkilpatrick

June 27, 2017 at 9:27 am

PWC’s Quarterly CRE Review

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PwC’s quarterly commercial real estate review just hit my desk.  I have a particular affinity for this survey-based review — it was founded about 30 years ago by Peter Korpacz, MAI, an alumni of the Real Estate Counseling Group of America and an acquaintance of mine.  PwC took it over a few years ago, and have done wonderfully with it.

The entire report, at 106 pages, is far too robust for a simple summary.  However, a key metric is the review of capitalization rate changes by property type (e.g. — warehouse, apartments) and offices by region (e.g. — Manhattan, DC, San Francisco).  A cap rate, of course, is the ratio of a property’s net operating income to its sales price.  Declining cap rates on a broad front can indicate the onset of a recession, but differential cap rate changes (rising in one market, declining in another) may suggest differing sector views by real estate investors.  By property type, this is what we appear to have today.

For example, warehouse cap rates currently average 5.27% nationally, but this represents a decline by 10 basis points just in the 2nd quarter.  Generally, this points to a favorable view of warehouses by investors — they’re willing to pay a bit more for each dollar of prospective income.  Conversely, offices in the central business district saw increases of 13 basis points, suggesting a softening of CBD office prospects.

Across various regions of the country, offices in general (both CBD and others) showed either no change or declines in cap rates, with the biggest cap rate declines occurring in Phoenix and Philadelphia.  Only Denver and Atlanta showed increases in office cap rates.

Overall, investors expect cap rates to hold steady or increase over the coming six months.  Indeed, only among CBD offices and power centers was there any sentiment for cap rate decreases.  100% of investors expect net lease properties to show cap rate increases in the coming 6 months, which portends value softening in that property sector.

We’ve used the nasty “R” word (ahem… “recession”) on occasion here at Greenfield, and PwC seems to agree with us.  They expect that the office sector will peak by the end of this year, and a large number of metro areas are expected to move into contraction during 2018 and 2019.  They expect 61% of cities in their survey to show retail property recession by the end of this year, but with some limited exceptions (Austin and Charleston).

Industrial properties, on the other hand, should fare well, with only Houston headed for recession during 2017.  They also expect 15 other markets, including Los Angeles and Atlanta, to face industrial recession by the end of this year.  Further, a large supply of industrial property is expected to come to market during the near term, suggesting an industrial over-supply for the next four years.

One bright spot is multi-family, which continues to “benefit from the unaffordability of single family homes”.  Two markets need to play catch-up (Charlotte and Denver) but other markets should fare well, with 40% of markets headed for expansion.

Demand & Supply

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I just read a nice piece by Deloitte’s Robert T. O’Brien, their Global and U.S. Real Estate and Construction Leader, titled Commercial Real Estate Outlook 2017.  It’s far too interesting and too packed with info to summarize here, so have a glance for yourself.  However, I’ll point out a couple of things I believe stand out in his analysis.

First, homebuilders are under pressure due to what he calls the “demand-supply dichotomy.”  I’ve been concerned about this for a while.  During the recession — which admittedly was several years ago — big chunks of the housing infrastructure collapsed, including acquisition-development-construction (ADC) finance, skilled labor, permanent finance securitization, and local government permitting capabilities.  As such, we now actually have a bit of a housing shortage in hot areas (think “Seattle”).  Mr. O’Brien worries that homebuilders’ financial projections may be dampened.  I’m a bit more concerned with the upward price pressure on houses, which could put us back in a bubble situation.  Deloitte believes interest rates hikes by the FED may temper some of the demand side.

He believes private equity fundraising will decline this year, “…as managers focus on deploying existing funds.”  He believes managers will face increasing competition looking for good investments.  I would add that new managers or managers with a new story to tell will find 2017 a bit easier for fundraising than 2016.

O’Brien also sees slowing in the commercial construction arena, and so slugging financial performance for engineering and construction firms.  REITs should do well, though, albeit with continued portfolio repositioning.

Deloitte sees GDP growing about 2.5% this year and unemployment below 5%, which is in line with metrics we see here at Greenfield.  They also see several things disrupting the economy both this year and in out years.  The “collaborative economy” will certainly have implications for the way new start-ups use and lease commercial real estate.  The internet is rapidly disintermediating brokerage and leasing services, with implications for traditional brokers.  A shortage of talent in the STEM area and other shifts in the way millennials view the workplace have implications for location strategies.  Speed and mode of retail delivery — the “last mile” disruptions of Amazon — are still being sorted out.